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2001/77/EC

Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market

Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market

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THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission(1),
Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee(2),
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions(3),
Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty(4),
Whereas:
(1) The potential for the exploitation of renewable energy sources is underused in the Community at present. The Community recognises the need to promote renewable energy sources as a priority measure given that their exploitation contributes to environmental protection and sustainable development. In addition this can also create local employment, have a positive impact on social cohesion, contribute to security of supply and make it possible to meet Kyoto targets more quickly. It is therefore necessary to ensure that this potential is better exploited within the framework of the internal electricity market.
(2) The promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is a high Community priority as outlined in the White Paper on Renewable Energy Sources (hereinafter referred to as "the White Paper") for reasons of security and diversification of energy supply, of environmental protection and of social and economic cohesion. That was endorsed by the Council in its resolution of 8 June 1998 on renewable sources of energy(5), and by the European Parliament in its resolution on the White Paper.(6)
(3) The increased use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources constitutes an important part of the package of measures needed to comply with the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and of any policy package to meet further commitments.
(4) The Council in its conclusions of 11 May 1999 and the European Parliament in its resolution of 17 June 1998 on electricity from renewable energy sources(7) have invited the Commission to submit a concrete proposal for a Community framework on access for electricity produced from renewable energy sources to the internal market. Furthermore, the European Parliament in its resolution of 30 March 2000 on electricity from renewable energy sources and the internal electricity market(8) underlined that binding and ambitious renewable energy targets at the national level are essential for obtaining results and achieving the Community targets.
(5) To ensure increased market penetration of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the medium term, all Member States should be required to set national indicative targets for the consumption of electricity produced from renewable sources.
(6) These national indicative targets should be consistent with any national commitment made as part of the climate change commitments accepted by the Community under the Kyoto Protocol.
(7) The Commission should assess to what extent Member States have made progress towards achieving their national indicative targets, and to what extent the national indicative targets are consistent with the global indicative target of 12 % of gross domestic energy consumption by 2010, considering that the White Paper's indicative target of 12 % for the Community as a whole by 2010 provides useful guidance for increased efforts at Community level as well as in Member States, bearing in mind the need to reflect differing national circumstances. If necessary for the achievement of the targets, the Commission should submit proposals to the European Parliament and the Council which may include mandatory targets.
(8) Where they use waste as an energy source, Member States must comply with current Community legislation on waste management. The application of this Directive is without prejudice to the definitions set out in Annex 2a and 2b to Council Directive 75/442/EEC of 15 July 1975 on waste(9). Support for renewable energy sources should be consistent with other Community objectives, in particular respect for the waste treatment hierarchy. Therefore, the incineration of non-separated municipal waste should not be promoted under a future support system for renewable energy sources, if such promotion were to undermine the hierarchy.
(9) The definition of biomass used in this Directive does not prejudge the use of a different definition in national legislation, for purposes other than those set out in this Directive.
(10) This Directive does not require Member States to recognise the purchase of a guarantee of origin from other Member States or the corresponding purchase of electricity as a contribution to the fulfilment of a national quota obligation. However, to facilitate trade in electricity produced from renewable energy sources and to increase transparency for the consumer's choice between electricity produced from non-renewable and electricity produced from renewable energy sources, the guarantee of origin of such electricity is necessary. Schemes for the guarantee of origin do not by themselves imply a right to benefit from national support mechanisms established in different Member States. It is important that all forms of electricity produced from renewable energy sources are covered by such guarantees of origin.
(11) It is important to distinguish guarantees of origin clearly from exchangeable green certificates.
(12) The need for public support in favour of renewable energy sources is recognised in the Community guidelines for State aid for environmental protection(10), which, amongst other options, take account of the need to internalise external costs of electricity generation. However, the rules of the Treaty, and in particular Articles 87 and 88 thereof, will continue to apply to such public support.
(13) A legislative framework for the market in renewable energy sources needs to be established.
(14) Member States operate different mechanisms of support for renewable energy sources at the national level, including green certificates, investment aid, tax exemptions or reductions, tax refunds and direct price support schemes. One important means to achieve the aim of this Directive is to guarantee the proper functioning of these mechanisms, until a Community framework is put into operation, in order to maintain investor confidence.
(15) It is too early to decide on a Community-wide framework regarding support schemes, in view of the limited experience with national schemes and the current relatively low share of price supported electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the Community.
(16) It is, however necessary to adapt, after a sufficient transitional period, support schemes to the developing internal electricity market. It is therefore appropriate that the Commission monitor the situation and present a report on experience gained with the application of national schemes. If necessary, the Commission should, in the light of the conclusions of this report, make a proposal for a Community framework with regard to support schemes for electricity produced from renewable energy sources. That proposal should contribute to the achievement of the national indicative targets, be compatible with the principles of the internal electricity market and take into account the characteristics of the different sources of renewable energy, together with the different technologies and geographical differences. It should also promote the use of renewable energy sources in an effective way, and be simple and at the same time as efficient as possible, particularly in terms of cost, and include sufficient transitional periods of at least seven years, maintain investors' confidence and avoid stranded costs. This framework would enable electricity from renewable energy sources to compete with electricity produced from non-renewable energy sources and limit the cost to the consumer, while, in the medium term, reduce the need for public support.
(17) Increased market penetration of electricity produced from renewable energy sources will allow for economies of scale, thereby reducing costs.
(18) It is important to utilise the strength of the market forces and the internal market and make electricity produced from renewable energy sources competitive and attractive to European citizens.
(19) When favouring the development of a market for renewable energy sources, it is necessary to take into account the positive impact on regional and local development opportunities, export prospects, social cohesion and employment opportunities, especially as concerns small and medium-sized undertakings as well as independent power producers.
(20) The specific structure of the renewable energy sources sector should be taken into account, especially when reviewing the administrative procedures for obtaining permission to construct plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources.
(21) In certain circumstances it is not possible to ensure fully transmission and distribution of electricity produced from renewable energy sources without affecting the reliability and safety of the grid system and guarantees in this context may therefore include financial compensation.
(22) The costs of connecting new producers of electricity from renewable energy sources should be objective, transparent and non-discriminatory and due account should be taken of the benefit embedded generators bring to the grid.
(23) Since the general objectives of the proposed action cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore, by reason of the scale or effects of the action, be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. Their detailed implementation should, however, be left to the Member States, thus allowing each Member State to choose the regime which corresponds best to its particular situation. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives,
HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

Article 1
Purpose
The purpose of this Directive is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework thereof.

Article 2
Definitions
For the purposes of this Directive, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) "renewable energy sources" shall mean renewable non-fossil energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases);
(b) "biomass" shall mean the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste;
(c) "electricity produced from renewable energy sources" shall mean electricity produced by plants using only renewable energy sources, as well as the proportion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in hybrid plants also using conventional energy sources and including renewable electricity used for filling storage systems, and excluding electricity produced as a result of storage systems;
(d) "consumption of electricity" shall mean national electricity production, including autoproduction, plus imports, minus exports (gross national electricity consumption).
In addition, the definitions in Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market of electricity(11) shall apply.

Article 3
National indicative targets
1. Member States shall take appropriate steps to encourage greater consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in conformity with the national indicative targets referred to in paragraph 2. These steps must be in proportion to the objective to be attained.
2. Not later than 27 October 2002 and every five years thereafter, Member States shall adopt and publish a report setting national indicative targets for future consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in terms of a percentage of electricity consumption for the next 10 years. The report shall also outline the measures taken or planned, at national level, to achieve these national indicative targets. To set these targets until the year 2010, the Member States shall:
- take account of the reference values in the Annex,
- ensure that the targets are compatible with any national commitments accepted in the context of the climate change commitments accepted by the Community pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
3. Member States shall publish, for the first time not later than 27 October 2003 and thereafter every two years, a report which includes an analysis of success in meeting the national indicative targets taking account, in particular, of climatic factors likely to affect the achievement of those targets and which indicates to what extent the measures taken are consistent with the national climate change commitment.
4. On the basis of the Member States' reports referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3, the Commission shall assess to what extent:
- Member States have made progress towards achieving their national indicative targets,
- the national indicative targets are consistent with the global indicative target of 12 % of gross national energy consumption by 2010 and in particular with the 22,1 % indicative share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in total Community electricity consumption by 2010.
The Commission shall publish its conclusions in a report, for the first time not later than 27 October 2004 and thereafter every two years. This report shall be accompanied, as appropriate, by proposals to the European Parliament and to the Council.
If the report referred to in the second subparagraph concludes that the national indicative targets are likely to be inconsistent, for reasons that are unjustified and/or do not relate to new scientific evidence, with the global indicative target, these proposals shall address national targets, including possible mandatory targets, in the appropriate form.

Article 4
Support schemes
1. Without prejudice to Articles 87 and 88 of the Treaty, the Commission shall evaluate the application of mechanisms used in Member States according to which a producer of electricity, on the basis of regulations issued by the public authorities, receives direct or indirect support, and which could have the effect of restricting trade, on the basis that these contribute to the objectives set out in Articles 6 and 174 of the Treaty.
2. The Commission shall, not later than 27 October 2005, present a well-documented report on experience gained with the application and coexistence of the different mechanisms referred to in paragraph 1. The report shall assess the success, including cost-effectiveness, of the support systems referred to in paragraph 1 in promoting the consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in conformity with the national indicative targets referred to in Article 3(2). This report shall, if necessary, be accompanied by a proposal for a Community framework with regard to support schemes for electricity produced from renewable energy sources.
Any proposal for a framework should:
(a) contribute to the achievement of the national indicative targets;
(b) be compatible with the principles of the internal electricity market;
(c) take into account the characteristics of different sources of renewable energy, together with the different technologies, and geographical differences;
(d) promote the use of renewable energy sources in an effective way, and be simple and, at the same time, as efficient as possible, particularly in terms of cost;
(e) include sufficient transitional periods for national support systems of at least seven years and maintain investor confidence.

Article 5
Guarantee of origin of electricity produced from renewable energy sources
1. Member States shall, not later than 27 October 2003, ensure that the origin of electricity produced from renewable energy sources can be guaranteed as such within the meaning of this Directive according to objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria laid down by each Member State. They shall ensure that a guarantee of origin is issued to this effect in response to a request.
2. Member States may designate one or more competent bodies, independent of generation and distribution activities, to supervise the issue of such guarantees of origin.
3. A guarantee of origin shall:
- specify the energy source from which the electricity was produced, specifying the dates and places of production, and in the case of hydroelectric installations, indicate the capacity;
- serve to enable producers of electricity from renewable energy sources to demonstrate that the electricity they sell is produced from renewable energy sources within the meaning of this Directive.
4. Such guarantees of origin, issued according to paragraph 2, should be mutually recognised by the Member States, exclusively as proof of the elements referred to in paragraph 3. Any refusal to recognise a guarantee of origin as such proof, in particular for reasons relating to the prevention of fraud, must be based on objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria. In the event of refusal to recognise a guarantee of origin, the Commission may compel the refusing party to recognise it, particularly with regard to objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria on which such recognition is based.
5. Member States or the competent bodies shall put in place appropriate mechanisms to ensure that guarantees of origin are both accurate and reliable and they shall outline in the report referred to in Article 3(3) the measures taken to ensure the reliability of the guarantee system.
6. After having consulted the Member States, the Commission shall, in the report referred to in Article 8, consider the form and methods that Member States could follow in order to guarantee the origin of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. If necessary, the Commission shall propose to the European Parliament and the Council the adoption of common rules in this respect.

Article 6
Administrative procedures
1. Member States or the competent bodies appointed by the Member States shall evaluate the existing legislative and regulatory framework with regard to authorisation procedures or the other procedures laid down in Article 4 of Directive 96/92/EC, which are applicable to production plants for electricity produced from renewable energy sources, with a view to:
- reducing the regulatory and non-regulatory barriers to the increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources,
- streamlining and expediting procedures at the appropriate administrative level, and
- ensuring that the rules are objective, transparent and non-discriminatory, and take fully into account the particularities of the various renewable energy source technologies.
2. Member States shall publish, not later than 27 October 2003, a report on the evaluation referred to in paragraph 1, indicating, where appropriate, the actions taken. The purpose of this report is to provide, where this is appropriate in the context of national legislation, an indication of the stage reached specifically in:
- coordination between the different administrative bodies as regards deadlines, reception and treatment of applications for authorisations,
- drawing up possible guidelines for the activities referred to in paragraph 1, and the feasibility of a fast-track planning procedure for producers of electricity from renewable energy sources, and
- the designation of authorities to act as mediators in disputes between authorities responsible for issuing authorisations and applicants for authorisations.
3. The Commission shall, in the report referred to in Article 8 and on the basis of the Member States' reports referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, assess best practices with a view to achieving the objectives referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 7
Grid system issues
1. Without prejudice to the maintenance of the reliability and safety of the grid, Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that transmission system operators and distribution system operators in their territory guarantee the transmission and distribution of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. They may also provide for priority access to the grid system of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. When dispatching generating installations, transmission system operators shall give priority to generating installations using renewable energy sources insofar as the operation of the national electricity system permits.
2. Member States shall put into place a legal framework or require transmission system operators and distribution system operators to set up and publish their standard rules relating to the bearing of costs of technical adaptations, such as grid connections and grid reinforcements, which are necessary in order to integrate new producers feeding electricity produced from renewable energy sources into the interconnected grid.
These rules shall be based on objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria taking particular account of all the costs and benefits associated with the connection of these producers to the grid. The rules may provide for different types of connection.
3. Where appropriate, Member States may require transmission system operators and distribution system operators to bear, in full or in part, the costs referred to in paragraph 2.
4. Transmission system operators and distribution system operators shall be required to provide any new producer wishing to be connected with a comprehensive and detailed estimate of the costs associated with the connection. Member States may allow producers of electricity from renewable energy sources wishing to be connected to the grid to issue a call for tender for the connection work.
5. Member States shall put into place a legal framework or require transmission system operators and distribution system operators to set up and publish their standard rules relating to the sharing of costs of system installations, such as grid connections and reinforcements, between all producers benefiting from them.
The sharing shall be enforced by a mechanism based on objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria taking into account the benefits which initially and subsequently connected producers as well as transmission system operators and distribution system operators derive from the connections.
6. Member States shall ensure that the charging of transmission and distribution fees does not discriminate against electricity from renewable energy sources, including in particular electricity from renewable energy sources produced in peripheral regions, such as island regions and regions of low population density.
Where appropriate, Member States shall put in place a legal framework or require transmission system operators and distribution system operators to ensure that fees charged for the transmission and distribution of electricity from plants using renewable energy sources reflect realisable cost benefits resulting from the plant's connection to the network. Such cost benefits could arise from the direct use of the low-voltage grid.
7. Member States shall, in the report referred to in Article 6(2), also consider the measures to be taken to facilitate access to the grid system of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. That report shall examine, inter alia, the feasibility of introducing two-way metering.

Article 8
Summary report
On the basis of the reports by Member States pursuant to Article 3(3) and Article 6(2), the Commission shall present to the European Parliament and the Council, no later than 31 December 2005 and thereafter every five years, a summary report on the implementation of this Directive.
This report shall:
- consider the progress made in reflecting the external costs of electricity produced from non-renewable energy sources and the impact of public support granted to electricity production,
- take into account the possibility for Member States to meet the national indicative targets established in Article 3(2), the global indicative target referred to in Article 3(4) and the existence of discrimination between different energy sources.
If appropriate, the Commission shall submit with the report further proposals to the European Parliament and the Council.

Article 9
Transposition
Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive not later than 27 October 2003. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof.
When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or shall be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by the Member States.

Article 10
Entry into force
This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Communities.

Article 11
Addressees
This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Brussels, 27 September 2001.

For the European Parliament
The President
N. Fontaine

For the Council
The President
C. Picqué

(1) OJ C 311 E, 31.10.2000, p. 320 and OJ C 154 E, 29.5.2001, p. 89.
(2) OJ C 367, 20.12.2000, p. 5.
(3) OJ C 22, 24.1.2001, p. 27.
(4) Opinion of the European Parliament of 16 November 2000 (OJ C 223, 8.8.2001, p. 294), Council Common Position of 23 March 2001 (OJ C 142, 15.5.2001, p. 5) and Decision of the European Parliament of 4 July 2001 (not yet published in the Official Journal). Council Decision of 7 September 2001.
(5) OJ C 198, 24.6.1998, p. 1.
(6) OJ C 210, 6.7.1998, p. 215.
(7) OJ C 210, 6.7.1998, p. 143.
(8) OJ C 378, 29.12.2000, p. 89.
(9) OJ L 194, 25.7.1975, p. 39. Directive as last amended by Commission Decision 96/350/EC (OJ L 135, 6.6.1996, p. 32).
(10) OJ C 37, 3.2.2001, p. 3.
(11) OJ L 27, 30.1.1997, p. 20.



ANNEX


Reference values for Member States' national indicative targets for the contribution of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to gross electricity consumption by 2010.(*)
(*) In taking into account the reference values set out in this Annex, Member States make the necessary assumption that the State aid guidelines for environmental protection allow for the existence of national support schemes for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources.
 

 

Datum uveřejnění: 27. října 2001 Poslední změna: 21. března 2005 Počet shlédnutí: 7657



 
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